Plant parasitic nematodes

Nematodes are worm-shaped pests virtually invisible to the naked eye when in the soil. They can cause significant plant damage ranging from negligible injury to total destruction of plant material. The severity of plant injury depends on several factors such as plant/ nematode species combination and prevailing environmental factors Nematodes feed on underground parts of plants, including roots, bulbs, and tubers. Because of this below ground, “hidden” feeding activity, nematode damage to plants cannot always be diagnosed readily.

Symptoms of plant damage due to nematode activity:

  • Initially symptoms are similar to lack of or improper fertilization, too little or too much water, poor soil, or other environmental factors.
  • Oval areas or irregular patches in the field with poor plant growth
  • Poor, sickly growth, wilting, yellowing, stunting, and premature plant aging.

Nematode Management

Prevention

  • Education regarding nematode
  • Soil sample analysis
  • Careful Examination of transplant roots before plantin
  • Weed control
  • Equipment sanitation practices

Avoidance

  • Choosing plant materials that are poor hosts.
  • Practice crop rotations that include non-host, resistant and susceptible crops when feasible.

Monitoring

Chemical Management

Chemical management reduces nematode populations for a limited period of time. But, nematodes that escape treatment can resume feeding when the chemical is gone. Amiran Tolerant species: Tomato Shanty + N Amiran chemicals to control nematodes: Neem Raj, Neem Gold

Tomato leaf curl virus

Symptoms of plant damage due to leaf curl virus:

  • As it name- curling leaves. Though it can take up tothree weeks before any symptoms develop,the most common indicator of the disease is the yellowing and upward curling of the leaves, which may also appear crumply.
  • Plant growth soon becomes stunted and may even take on a bush-like growth habit.
  • Flowers usually will not develop and those that do simply drop off
  • Fruit production will be significantly reduced
Cause of disease: Normally this virus is transmitted through whiteflies or through infected transplants. Note: Another cause of tomato plant leaf curling, also known as leaf roll, is attributed to physiologic conditions as temperature or uneven watering,